Renewable energy is a fast expanding field, welcomed by many as part of the answer to climate change and energy security concerns; but can renewables deliver enough energy reliably and economically? Rapid expansion continues in the area of renewable energy, with wind capacity expected to double over the next five years and PV solar perhaps treble in the same period. There have been some dramatic projections of potential expansion longer term, with some studies now suggesting that renewables could supply all or nearly all electricity needs globally and perhaps also all energy needs by 2050. In this book David Elliott conveys the sense of excitement that abounds in this new area of technological development, by reviewing the basic technological options and how renewable technologies are being implemented and used around the world, but he also considers the problems, including local environmental impacts and the need to deal with the variability of some renewable energy sources.
Dividing the renewable energy supply options into those based on mechanical power, heat and light it also looks at some related energy conversion options, including fuel cells, heat pumps and cogeneration/combined heat and power. The author explores how these new sources can be integrated and used together with technologies for reducing energy waste and demand to replace conventional energy sources and ensure a balance of supply and demand. After reviewing the renewable energy options the book then considers implementation and policy issues, including storage and grid balancing; aspects that will play a critical role in the creation of sustainable, clean and viable renewable energy solutions. This is not a text book – there are plenty available – instead the book reviews what is happening across this field at this time of great change and rapid development. Supplemented with many case studies and links to information sources this book will be essential reading for scientists, engineers, policymakers and anybody involved with or interested in the implementation of green and renewable energy technologies, and the environmental aspects of modern energy demands.
David Elliott worked initially with the UK Atomic Energy Authority at Harwell and the Central Electricity Generating Board, before moving to the Open University, where he is now an Emeritus Professor. While at The Open University, he was the co-director of the Energy and Environment Research Unit and Professor of Technology Policy in the Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology. During his time at The Open University he created several courses in design and innovation, with special emphasis on how the innovation development process can be directed towards sustainable technologies.
Prof. Elliott has published numerous books, reports and papers, especially in the area of the development of sustainable and renewable energy technologies and systems. Still very active in research and policy he also writes the popular blog Renew Your Energy on environmentalresearchweb.org.
As we settle into this second decade of the 21st century it is evident that the advances in microelectronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The growth of microelectronics itself has been driven, and in turn is calibrated by, the growth in density of transistors on a single integrated circuit, a growth that has come to be known as Moore's Law. Considering that the first transistor appeared only at the middle of the last century, it is remarkable that billions of transistors can now appear on a single chip. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application.
This book, written specifically for a one-semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors and prepares readers for further advanced study, research and development work in semiconductor materials and applications. The book describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the microelectronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution. Including chapters on electronic structure, lattice dynamics, electron–phonon interactions and carrier transport it also discusses theoretical methods for computation of band structure, phonon spectra, the electron–phonon interaction and transport of carriers.
David K Ferry is Regents' Professor in the School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, at Arizona State University. He received his doctoral degree from the University of Texas, Austin, and was the recipient of the 1999 Cledo Brunetti Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers for his contributions to nanoelectronics. He is the author, or co-author, of numerous scientific articles and more than a dozen books.
The applications of nonlinear ultrafast spectroscopy are numerous and widespread, and it is an indispensable technique in modern research. Unfortunately, it is also a topic that can be daunting to those meeting it for the first time. Making use of many worked examples and accompanied by MATLAB® codes for numerical simulations of spectra, the authors deliver a practical and intuitive approach to the subject. Assuming just an understanding of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, the book delivers an introduction to the subject for advanced students and researchers. It will also be useful for practitioners, who are already familiar with the subject, but who want to develop a more conceptual understanding. Once a reader has assimilated the material in this text, they will be fully equipped with the tools to devise well-reasoned spectroscopic experiments.
Alán Aspuru-Guzik is a professor of chemistry and chemical biology at Harvard University, USA. Joel Yuen-Zhou is a research fellow at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. Jacob J Krich is an assistant professor of physics at the University of Ottawa, Canada. Ivan Kassal is a researcher at The University of Queensland, Australia.
With the increasing interest in climate change, and the ever-growing importance of atmospheric physics, an understanding of how the atmosphere functions and interacts with oceans, ice and the biosphere has become more urgent. This self-contained text, written for graduate students in physics or meteorology, assumes no prior knowledge apart from basic mechanics and calculus and delivers material for a complete course. Augmented with worked examples, the text considers all aspects of atmospheric physics excluding dynamics, and covers topics such as thermodynamics, cloud microphysics, remote sensing and atmospheric radiation and will be an invaluable resource for students and researchers.
Rodrigo Caballero is a researcher in the Department of Meteorology at Stockholm University where his research focuses on the role of the atmosphere within the climate system, with an emphasis on understanding the fundamental underlying mechanisms of this complex system, including interactions between atmosphere, ocean, ice and the biosphere.
By colliding heavy ions at nearly the speed of light scientists are exploring both our physical world and conditions at the beginning of the universe. With applications in nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics, cosmology and condensed-matter physics, this text will provide the foundation for a range of graduate students and young researchers in both experimental and particle physics. This text introduces the subject of relativistic high-energy heavy ion collisions and in particular the subject of the quark–gluon–plasma (QGP). Starting with a conceptual basis for QGP formation in heavy ion collisions, the author then proceeds to provide a more rigorous foundation by introducing gauge theory, QCD and lattice QCD. These topics are introduced briefly, but with sufficient coverage that the reader can comprehend their applications in heavy ion collisions. Two particle correlation (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss) method and recent advances in hydrodynamical modelling, including event-by-event hydrodynamics are also discussed bringing the coverage up to the leading areas of current research.
Asis Kumar Chaudhuri is head of the Theoretical Physics Division, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata and a professor at the Homi Bhabha National Institute, Kolkata, India.
The interdisciplinary field of network science has attracted enormous attention in recent years, although most results in the field have been obtained by analysing isolated networks. However many real-world networks do interact with and depend on other networks. In such
a network of interacting networks, the system displays surprising and rich behaviour where the failure of nodes in one network may lead to failure of dependent nodes in other networks. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures. In fact, a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system of several interdependent networks. Such networks of networks are common and diverse critical infrastructures are frequently coupled together, including systems such as water, food and fuel supply, communications, financial markets and power supply. Different systems in our body, the brain, the respiratory and cardiac systems etc, regularly interact and are interdependent on each other. Moreover, social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter, which play an important role in our life, connect us to a huge system of interacting networks. Thus, understanding network of networks is important for many disciplines and has real-world applications.
This book will be the first to discuss this new developing and exciting topic – robustness of network of networks – which can be regarded as a second revolution in network science and will be essential reading for a wide range of physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists, biologists, engineers and social scientists. It is expected to help both students and researchers in the field of network science to discover new fascinating phenomena in the emerging field of network of networks.
Jianxi Gao is a researcher at the Intelligent Information Control Laboratory at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P. R. China.
Amir Bashan is a researcher in the Department of Physics at Bar-Ilan University, Israel.
Shlomo Havlin is a professor in the Department of Physics at Bar-Ilan University, Israel, where he has also served as the department chairman and Dean of the Faculty of Exact Sciences.
Studying digital imaging, mastering this profession and working in the area is not possible without obtaining practical skills based on fundamental knowledge in the subject. In this book Prof. Yaroslavsky delivers a complete practical course in digital imaging aimed at advanced students and practitioners. Covering all areas of digital imaging the text provides a theoretical outline of each topic before offering a range of MATLAB® based exercises. Augmented by numerous colour illustrations and video files, the text allows readers to gain a practical understanding of the key topics in digital imaging and manipulation.
Leonid P Yaroslavsky is a professor emeritus at Tel Aviv University. A fellow of the Optical Society of America, Dr Yaroslavsky has authored more than 100 papers on digital image processing and digital holography.
The embedding method is a way of solving the Schrödinger equation for electrons in a region of space joined to a substrate. It is a flexible method, as well as surface electronic structure, it can be used to study interfaces, adsorbates, conductance through molecules and confined electrons, and even used to calculate the energy distribution of electrons confined by nanostructures. Embedding can be applied to solving Maxwell's equations, leading to an efficient way of finding the photonic and plasmonic band structure.
In this book John Inglesfield reviews the embedding method for calculating electronic structures and its application within modern condensed matter physics research. Supplemented with demonstration programmes, codes and examples this book provides a thorough review of the method and would be an accessible starting point for graduate students or researchers in physics and physical chemistry wishing to understand and use the method, or as a single up to date and authoritative reference source for those already using the method.
John Inglesfield Emeritus Professor of Physics at Cardiff University, UK. After a research fellowship at St John's College he moved to the Daresbury Laboratory joining the Theory and Computational Science Division, of which he became head in 1982. He subsequently moved to the University of Nijmegen (the Netherlands) in 1989 as Professor of Electronic Structure of Materials, and finally moved to Cardiff University in 1995.
This book deals with the development of particle physics, in particular through the exacting and all-important interplay between theory and experiment, an area that has now become known as phenomenology. Particle physics phenomenology provides the connection between the mathematical models created by theoretical physicists and the experimentalists who explore the building blocks of matter and the forces that operate between them. Assuming no more background knowledge than the basics of quantum mechanics, relativistic mechanics and nuclear physics, the author presents a solid and clear motivation for the developments witnessed by the particle physics community at both high and low energies over that last 50 or 60 years. In particular, the role of symmetries and their violation is central to many of the discussions. Including exercises and many references to original experimental and theoretical papers, as well as other useful sources, it will be essential reading for all students and researchers in modern particle physics.
Born in Great Britain, Philip G Ratcliffe completed his early schooling in England, obtaining his first degree in theoretical physics from Trinity College (University of Cambridge) and his PhD from the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste, Italy. He has been research assistant at Cambridge and London universities and researcher with the INFN Milan and Turin sections. In 1996 he moved to the School of Sciences in Como, at the University of Insubria, to take up a permanent position as an Assistant Professor in Theoretical Physics. There in 2002 he became Associate Professor of Nuclear and Subnuclear Physics. His research activities regard elementary particle physics theory and phenomenology and he has spent periods visiting such institutions and laboratories as CERN, MIT, SLAC, Fermilab, BNL, INT (Seattle) and the University of Paris.
Einstein’s general theory of relativity provides our modern description of gravitation, supplanting Newton’s law of universal gravitation that held sway for more than 200 years. General relativity describes gravity as a geometric property of space and time, with space-time being curved by an objects energy and momentum.
Though the predictions of general relativity have been experimentally confirmed there remain many questions. As general relativity is at the heart of our understanding of astrophysics and cosmology, these questions concern our comprehension of the properties of bodies such as black holes and even the evolution of the universe.
In this enlightening book Beverly Berger demonstrates how science progresses using Einstein’s theory of general relativity as a central theme. Starting each chapter with an introduction to the topic to be discussed in both a conceptual and mathematical manner the author then proceeds to describe the key research questions in that field, with a focus on lessons learned for the progress of science and with personal touches from her own extensive research career.
This book will help readers not only understand general relativity but also how it is central to the big questions in modern cosmology and how science is not a linear process nor a finite one, but developed through coincidences, confrontations, collaboration, conscientiousness and chance.
Beverly K Berger retired from the National Science Foundation where she was Program Director for Gravitational Physics from late 2001 through to the end of 2012. Previously, she had spent 24 years as a faculty member in the Physics Department at Oakland University, eventually becoming professor and chair. She received her BS in physics at the University of Rochester and her PhD in physics at the University of Maryland. She held postdoctoral positions at the University of Colorado and Yale University. Her research field has been theoretical gravitational physics with most recent work on numerical investigations of singularities. In 1995, she founded the American Physical Society's Topical Group in Gravitation (GGR) and became its first chair. Additional past activities within the APS include membership on the council and the Physical Review D editorial board and chairing the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics, the Publication Oversight Committee, and the selection committees for the Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics and the Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics. She is currently the Vice-Chair of GGR and the secretary of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation. She is a member of the Editorial Board of Reports on Progress in Physics, the External Advisory Committee of the College of Science at Rochester Institute of Technology, the International Advisory Committee of the Albert Einstein Institute of the Max Planck Society, and of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration. She is an APS fellow.
The text provides background and basic principles for bioinformatics research in an evolutionary context, with an emphasis on the link between gene and trait; this type of question arises in many industrial applications, e.g. biotechnology, pharmacology and drug discovery, and other applications based on genomics and proteomics.
Hugo van den Berg is a lecturer at the University of Warwick’s Mathematics Institute where he specialises in mathematical biology and teaches courses in mathematical, quantitative and system biology. His research interests include the applications of mathematical and statistical biology to the dynamics and efficacy of the cellular immune system.
This book provides researchers with diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, material science, engineering and biology the basic concepts and analytical tools needed to carry out state-of-the-art basic research and device development in the multidisciplinary field of light-matter interaction at the nano- and quantum scale.
John Weiner was formerly Professor at the Université Paul Sabatier in Toulouse, France, and a visiting researcher at the Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. His research interests include atomic, molecular, and optical physics, laser-assisted inelastic collisions, atom cooling and trapping, studies of ultracold collision dynamics, manipulation of atoms and molecules by light forces issuing from nanostructures, plasmonics, surface waves, and light transmission through subwavelength apertures. He is the author of three books: Light-Matter Interaction: Physics and Engineering at the Nanoscale, Oxford University Press, 2013; Light-matter Interaction: Fundamentals and Applications, Wiley, 2003; Cold and Ultracold Collisions in Quantum Microscopic and Mesoscopic Systems, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
This book, together with the accompanying software, is intended to help students learn and understand the fundamental concepts and the laws of classical and physics as they apply to the fascinating world of the motions of natural and artificial celestial bodies.
Eugene Butikov is a professor of physics at St Petersburg State University in Russia, where he teaches general physics, optics, quantum theory of solids and theory of oscillations. His research work is associated with solid-state physics (quantum theory of electronic paramagnetic resonance, theory of Josephson effects in weak superconductivity) and theory of nonlinear oscillations. He has written several textbooks and handbooks on physics that are widely used in Russia, and is a co-author of the Concise Handbook of Mathematics and Physics, CRC Press, 1997. He devotes a lot of time and effort to developing interactive educational software for university-level physics students to investigate mathematical models of physical systems.
This book introduces the physics and applications of transport in mesoscopic and nanoscale electronic systems and devices. Including coverage of recent developments and with a chapter on carbon-based nanoelectronics, this book will provide a good course text for advanced students or as a handy reference for researchers or those entering this interdisciplinary area.
David K Ferry is Regents’ Professor in the School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, at Arizona State University. He received his doctoral degree from the University of Texas, Austin, and was the recipient of the 1999 Cledo Brunetti Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers for his contributions to nanoelectronics. He is the author, or co-author, of numerous scientific articles and more than a dozen books.
This book takes students from understanding standard materials science and engineering and uses it as a base to work from in teaching the additional requirements of nuclear engineering science.
Dr Karl Whittle joined the department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Sheffield in 2012, before that being a research leader at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in nuclear materials science. In particular, he was focusing on the effects of radiation damage, how it can be ameliorated and materials designed for the next-generation nuclear reactor technologies, both fission- and fusion-based. Before that he worked in postdoctoral research positions at the universities of Sheffield, Cambridge and Bristol.